Basic Semenology and Male Infertility

Anything related to sperm whether it is sperm analysis, sperm collection techniques or sperm separation techniques, define semenology.Sperm analysis in semenology includes many optional tests but there are three advanced tests to find fertile sperm. The three advanced tests are hypo-osmotic swelling test, vital staining test and fructose estimation test.

What is hypo-osmotic swelling test?

Hypo-osmotic swelling test determines fertility of the sperm and calculates the potential of sperm’s plasma membrane. This test evaluates membrane’s ability to maintain and regulate temperature balance between the sperm cell and its environment. Inundation of fluid due to hypo-osmotic stress tends to coiling of the sperm tail and leads to swelling of the sperm tail. Swelling of sperm tail hinders the vitality of the sperm that encourages infertility in men. Hypo-osmosis swelling test is a test for male infertility and those who want to go through IUI are required to perform this test.

What is vital staining test?

Vital staining test provides number of live and non-motile sperm, that is, the sperms that are alive but cannot move. This test includes examining of sperm motility. Ejaculated semen contains both dead and live sperms but not all the live sperms are motile. It determines the rate of infertility in males. Large number of dead and immotile sperms increases infertility in men. Males with higher sperm count are not always fertile if their semen contains large number of dead or immotile sperms.

What is fructose estimation test?

Fructose estimation test is performed to predict the secretion ability of seminal vessels and deduce infertility in men. Low fructose in semen proves deficiency of androgen hormone which is responsible for maintaining male fertility. Low fructose is also a result of obstruction of ejaculatory duct, or partial retrograde ejaculation and bilateral congenital absence of vas deference in men.

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